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Tinevichy village - White Meadows.
деревня Тиневичи. Белые Луга.
туристическая деревня в белорусской глубинке
Touristic village at the Belarus Countryside.
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Dressing bandsaw, guide blocks
I replaced my handsaw's steel guide blocks with graphite·impregnated phenolic blocks (Cool Blocks). For accurate operation, the blocks' faces should be routinely dressed to remove regular wear. I tried freehand filing and sanding, but had a hard time keeping the ends square with the edges.
To solve the problem, I made this simple jig. It's a 1j.)( 2 )( 6H scrap of hardwood, with a notch sawn in the end to snugly accommodate a guide block. A 1/8-thick end-strip screwed to the scrap secures the guide block in place. (If necessary for a snug fit, wrap the block with masking tape.) To smooth and square the blocks, position them in the jig so that they project just a bit from the bottom and rub the whole thing over ISO-grit and 220-grit sandpaper until the ends are flush with the bottom of the Jig, It's
best to do this on a dead-flat surface, like a saw or jointer table. To dress guide blocks with a 45° face. I bevel-cut the opposite end of the jig before notching it. - Bob Howard, St. Louis. Missouri
Woodworker's welcome mat
After cleaning up countless shavings and sawdust trails leading from my workshop into my home,
I made a heavy-duty boot brush from a few scraps of '1/4' plywood and three 2 x 7" deck scrub brushes. Assemble the base using screws and glue. To fasten the brushes to the base, drive 1 1/4 screws through the bristle-ends of the brushes.
To give workshop debris the boot, stand on an end and kick your free foot over the bristles. (To
make a garden·grade version, use leftover deck boards, waterproof glue, and plastic brushes.) - Kevin Woelfel, Moscow, Idaho.
Read the beginning of the story How to buy Hardwood lumber and Save.
Mill talk made easy (differences between big wood trading home centers and lumber sawmills)
The contrast between the big-box home centers and a sawmill requires explaining. When you go to a big-box store, you'll likely find kiln -dried red oak lumber and poplar planed or surfaced on two sides in 3/4 -thickness(nominally referred to as 1'” thick) in standard widths that include l x2, lx3. lx4, lx6, 1x8, and lx12 . Lengths extend to 12', but you can have boards cut to shorter lengths upon request. All of it is edged to remove wane.
At sawmills, rough stock comes in random lengths and widths and in several nominal thicknesses, such as 4/4 ("four/quarters" or 1~), 5/4
(1';.") , 6/4 (1'/")' 8/4 (2'), and so on. These thicknesses, though, 1 are designated and the board footage calculated before drying and surfacing. You pay retail for the original green thickness, though what you actually get in dry surfaced-two-sides (S2S) hardwood is shown In the chart on the previous post. The point is you can save money by buying full thickness rough·sawn stock and then plane it yourself. For those of you who have a thickness planer and jointer, consider yourselves in the winner's circle. Even if you buy surfaced sawmill boards you save.
Lumber grades a also require getting used to. Typically, big-box stores and wood specialty retailers offer only the top lumber grades of bard wood boards-FAS and F1F (one FAS face). However, depending on your project, you may only need #1 Common wood grade. More good news: You'll find all lumber grades at a sawmill. See "Lumber Grades at Glance" for an understanding of the quality differences found in sawmill wood. Once you know this, you'll know exactly what to ask for.
Grade quality at sawmills runs the gamut from First and Seconds (the best) to #3 Common (the worst) wood grade.
At the sawmill: what you need to succeed.
For starters, you'll need a truck or trailer to haul home the wood you buy. Sawmills don't do small-load, local deliveries. Include lots of li ne or cargo straps to secure the load and work gloves to handle rough-sawn stock and avoid splinters. lf the load extends beyond the truck or trailer, tack a red flag to the end, so folks behind you can keep a safe distance.
Next, have in mind exactly what wood you need-the species, thickness, grade, and board feet. (Note that one board foot equals a 1" thick piece of wood that measures 12x12"). lf building a magazine project, bring the cut list and cutting diagram.
How about the wood's lumber condition - are you set up to plane rough sawn stock? Next, decide whether or not you want kiln- or air-dried stock lf you're unsure about the wood's state of seasoning, tote a moisture meter, like Wagner's Digital Moisture Meter to check for dryness.
Ideally, you want hardwood in the 6-8% moisture range for wood furniture. When buying figured wood or quartersawn stock at a sawmill, use a block plane to shave the rough-sawn surface to determine the degree of character underneath as shown above.
Splash on water for an even better view of the grain and color. Lastly, don't forget to check on the seller's preferred payment method before you leave home. Cash may be preferred over a credit card. With that, good luck and happy shopping!
Domestic hardwood lumber found at sawmills meets different quality levels or grades as specified by the National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA). The basis for this wood grading is the number and size of defect-free clear cuttings in a board, as summarized below, Thickness is not a consideration, though with some species worm holes, gum pockets, and stain are acceptable.
FAS (First & Seconds) lumber grade. This premium grade represents the finest lumber yield in a log. Generally, the minimum size board is 6" wide by 8' long which yields a minimum of 83 1/3% clear cuttings on its poorest face.
F1F (FAS One Face) lumber grade. The best face grades as clear FAS; the worst, as #1 common, containing some knots.
Selects lumber grade. Close to a FAS board. A Select board must be a minimum of 4" wide and 6' long and yield a minimum of 83 1/3% clear cuttings, but only on one face with #1 common on the worst face.
#1 Common. An economical choice for wood furniture that requires moderate lengths and narrower widths. A #1 board must be a minimum of 3" wide and 4' long and yield 66 2/3% clear cuttings on the worst face. Expect some mineral streaks, splitting, wane, knots, and tool marks in wood(in rough-sawn).
#2 Common lumber grade. This grade allows many defects, including sound and unsound knots, pith (the unstable center), shakes (splits between growth rings), tool marks, wane, and checks (splits), if they don't affect strength. Minimum board size: 3" wide and 4' long. Each board must yield a minimum 50% usable, but not defect-free wood.
#3 Common. Not suitable for woodworking due to number of defects and low yield of usable wood.
When you visit a home center to purchase hardwood lumber, more than likely you'll encounter limited quantities, limited species, and through-the-roof pricing. In some cases, you're paying for that shiny cellophane wrapper. Before you sell your tools and steer toward a different hobby, you need to check out the benefits of shopping at a lumber sawmill.
While some mills service only the commercial building industry. make pallets, or ship woods overseas, many gladly sell to the local woodworker. Here is where you'll find great variety and huge savings. If the special lingo and ways in which sawmills sell hardwood have kept you at bay, let us help you shop like a pro.
First things first: finding a sawmill.
While your local yellow pages will yield results when you look under "Sawmills” or “Lumber-Retail," members of 10 cal woodworking clubs, woodworking friends, or woodworking specialty stores may serve as better sources for locating a sawmill.
Other sources: your state's department of natural resources, conservation, or forestry; a university extension service; or a forestry or wood science
department. If you're lucky, one of them publishes a sawmill directory arranged by county or region with phone numbers and notations such as type of mill, species cut, and presence of a kiln (it may be available online as a downloadable PDF). An Internet search for "hardwood lumber mills” “rough-sawn lumber," and "veneer mills" is yet another good approach.
Note, too, that sawmills come in all sizes, from one-man operations to large mills. With the advent of inexpensively built solar kilns and portable bandsaw mills, many small operations sell lumber directly to woodworkers. but they mayor may not be listed in a directory, and the wood may not be kilndried. Find owners/operators near you by calling portable mill manufacturers such as WoodMizer, (800) 553-0182; Granberg, (800) 233·0499; or Cook's Saw Manufacturing, (800) 473-4804.
First contact: what to ask
Once you discover one or more local sawmills. call them up and ask the following questions:
In a phone call to Haessly Hardwood Lumber Company in Marietta, Ohio (which we randomly selected), we learned, for instance, that the mill does sell direct with no quantity limitation. Woods include red and white oak, hard and soft maple, cherry, walnut, ash, hickory, beech, sassafras, and sycamore in thicknesses ranging from 4/4 to 8/4 for some species and in a range of grades from FAS to # 1, # 2, and #3 Common. (See "Sawmill Lumber Thicknesses~ and ~Lumber Grades at a Glance)
That's above and beyond what you'll find at your local big-box store. By going this route, you’ll essentially cut out the middle man. And the really good news? Prices for kiln-dried hardwood stock undercut the big-box stores by 50% or more!
Continue reading at part II: Buy lumber wood and wood products
Create a fool-the-eye timeworn look.
Some projects, like wine server for your wood cabinet, are not unlike a pair of blue jeans, Both look better after a few years of regular use.
To create that well-worn look wood finish, I have come up with a finishing schedule that can add a century's worth of character in less time than it would take to stonewash a new pair of Levis.
At first glance, this four-step finish might appear demanding, bur keep reading. As you'll soon learn, this special finish amounts to little more than
a combination of a few basic techniques you've probably used before. The “pickling" and - “highlighting” I use aren't much different than whitewashing a fence. Simply brush on the color and then wipe some off until it looks good to you. And after each step you'll apply a quick-drying seal coat to save your work.
Besides providing an additional decorative element to your work, antiquing has some practical advantages. Adding color to the finish effectively ties a project's parts together. I find it useful for blending together mismatched boards (like those you might find at a home center or have stashed in your shop). Distressing not only adds visual interest but also helps -break in a piece so that you don't weep the first time somebody tosses a set of keys on top of it. As in life, wear happens. So even if you don't build the server, try the technique on a few sample or "step" boards (see below). In the end, you'll have one more trick up your finishing sleeve.
Steps 1 and 2:
Prep and pickle
Pickling (sometimes called liming)results in a light-stained look that lets the rain show through, but may leave extra pigment lodged in the pores, corners, and carvings. Depending on who you listen to, the technique aims to mimic the took of a once-painted piece that was poorly stripped, treated with strong chemicals, or simply bleached out by the sun.
Like most wood finishing projects, start with careful sanding. Power- and then hand sand your way up to 220 grit. Gently soften any sharp edges on the top or casco. Next, apply a thin coat of stain. (I used medium brown wate-based due stain by General Finishes and diluted it to 50/50; then I applied it with a rag and brush.) Although it adds a step, this base coat darkens the bright look of new wood and provides two levels of color control. In addition to blending the boards together, the stain counters the oak's natural undertones. Without it, your white pickle coat may dry pink.
Give the stain 2-4 hou rs to dry and then capture it with a coat of sealer. (I used Zinsser's Sealeoat, diluted 1:1 with alcohol.) Wipe on the water-thin solution with a lint-free cloth. Allow an hour or so for the sealer to dry, and then knock off any raised fibers with a worn piece of 320-grit sandpaper or a gray non-woven abrasive pad.
A few manufacturers of wood products sell prepackaged "pickling" stain.
but I prefer making my own. The home-brewed approach not only reduces the number of cans on my shelf and saves a little money, but also allows me the flexibility to use an oil-based paint if I need more working time or latex if I want to speed things along. To make your mix, add one
part solvent (mineral spirits, or water) to four parts paint.
Now try brushing it on a sample board and wiping it off so that the grain shows through. Add more solvent if the mix seems too thick; the exact proportions aren't too critical. When pickling, it's important to work in manageable sections, especially with faster-drying latex. Brush on too much or wait too long before you wipe, and you've got paint. Work from the inside out, not only to keep yourself as clean as possible, but also to get the feel for the stain on the less visible surfaces before tackling the outer showfaces.
As shown above, the wood pickling process boils down to brushing on the paint and then ragging off the excess. You may want to follow up with a dry brush to erase any streaks left by the rag. Once you get the look you
want, give it time to dry. Use an abrasive pad to make any needed color adjustments and then apply a shellac sealer coat.
Tip: Oil-based finishes will add a yellow tint to your pickled white. For a no-color topcoat, choose blonde shellac, lacquer, or a water,based poly.
Dare to distress
Distressing of the wood is the process of accelerating the natural wear of a new piece of furniture. The only trick is to make the wear look legitimate. This can start with a made-up story, combined with a little common sense. Imagining
the history of this well·loved piece (not abused nor left to rot in a barn), I directed most of my attention to the tops, shelves, and sides. Legs and feet tend to suffer the most damage. (Applying convincing wear to the hard oak wood feet required extra muscle.)
Wood Antiquing process arsenal consists of a few found objects and a homemade flail as shown above. I chose each tool because it fits comfortably in my hand
and can be used to produce a multitude of different marks.
For instance, I can toss the keys on to horizontal surfaces or use them like brass knuckles for close-in scratches and dents. I employ the relatively smooth stone to make dents without cutting through the finish. The coarser face can be used to round corners like a very dull rasp. The only trick is to work slowly and take frequent breaks to inspect your work.
You can always add more later or wait for the piece to earn a few of its own.
Brushing in the years. Wood stain.
You can stop the wood antiquing process at Step 3, but I think the glazing is the icing on the cake. This thick-bodied stain is designed to stay where you put it, giving you the ability to create many different effects, Glazes dry slowly, enabling you to experiment with the finish to achieve the desired look. Because you're not trying to achieve a no-brush mark finish, glazing is quite easy to do. Like pickling, it's a brush-on/rag-off process, as
shown in the photos above. For additional color control, use a shorter bristle brush dry. To do this, spread some glaze on a piece of scrap cardboard or plywood. Touch the tip of the brush into the glaze, and then jab the bristles into those areas where din or grime might naturally accumulate, Lightly brushing high spots can add or remove color, depending on how much glaze you've got on your brush.
Oil-based glazes may require a few days to dry. Take advantage of the
drying window to inspect your work at different times of day.
Now its the time to add a few extra distress marks or additional color.
You can reverse glazing easily with mineral spirits or by scrubbing it with an abrasive pad. Last but not least, protect your hard work. Knowing that
this server is destined to see its fair share of dinner parties, I applied two coats of water-based polyurethane .